How Syria’s architecture laid the foundation for brutal war | Marwa Al-Sabouni

How Syria’s architecture laid the foundation for brutal war | Marwa Al-Sabouni

Hi. My name is Marwa,
and I’m an architect. I was born and raised in Homs, a city in the central
western part of Syria, and I’ve always lived here. After six years of war, Homs is now a half-destroyed city. My family and I were lucky;
our place is still standing. Although for two years,
we were like prisoners at home. Outside there were demonstrations
and battles and bombings and snipers. My husband and I used to run
an architecture studio in the old town main square. It’s gone, as is most
of the old town itself. Half of the city’s other neighborhoods are now rubble. Since the ceasefire in late 2015, large parts of Homs
have been more or less quiet. The economy is completely broken,
and people are still fighting. The merchants who had stalls
in the old city market now trade out of sheds on the streets. Under our apartment, there is a carpenter, sweetshops, a butcher, a printing house,
workshops, among many more. I have started teaching part-time, and with my husband,
who juggles several jobs, we’ve opened a small bookshop. Other people do all sorts
of jobs to get by. When I look at my destroyed city,
of course, I ask myself: What has led to this senseless war? Syria was largely a place of tolerance, historically accustomed to variety, accommodating a wide range
of beliefs, origins, customs, goods, food. How did my country — a country with communities
living harmoniously together and comfortable in discussing
their differences — how did it degenerate into civil war,
violence, displacement and unprecedented sectarian hatred? There were many reasons
that had led to the war — social, political and economic. They all have played their role. But I believe there is one key reason
that has been overlooked and which is important to analyze, because from it will largely depend whether we can make sure
that this doesn’t happen again. And that reason is architecture. Architecture in my country
has played an important role in creating, directing and amplifying
conflict between warring factions, and this is probably true
for other countries as well. There is a sure correspondence
between the architecture of a place and the character of the community
that has settled there. Architecture plays a key role
in whether a community crumbles or comes together. Syrian society has long lived
the coexistence of different traditions and backgrounds. Syrians have experienced
the prosperity of open trade and sustainable communities. They have enjoyed the true meaning
of belonging to a place, and that was reflected
in their built environment, in the mosques and churches
built back-to-back, in the interwoven souks and public venues, and the proportions and sizes based
on principles of humanity and harmony. This architecture of mixity
can still be read in the remains. The old Islamic city in Syria
was built over a multilayered past, integrating with it
and embracing its spirit. So did its communities. People lived and worked with each other in a place that gave them
a sense of belonging and made them feel at home. They shared a remarkably
unified existence. But over the last century, gradually this delicate balance
of these places has been interfered with; first, by the urban planners
of the colonial period, when the French went
enthusiastically about, transforming what they saw
as the un-modern Syrian cities. They blew up city streets
and relocated monuments. They called them improvements, and they were the beginning
of a long, slow unraveling. The traditional urbanism
and architecture of our cities assured identity and belonging
not by separation, but by intertwining. But over time, the ancient became
worthless, and the new, coveted. The harmony of the built environment
and social environment got trampled over
by elements of modernity — brutal, unfinished concrete blocks, neglect, aesthetic devastation, divisive urbanism that zoned
communities by class, creed or affluence. And the same was happening
to the community. As the shape of the built
environment changed, so the lifestyles and sense
of belonging of the communities also started changing. From a register
of togetherness, of belonging, architecture became
a way of differentiation, and communities started drifting apart from the very fabric
that used to unite them, and from the soul of the place that used
to represent their common existence. While many reasons had led
to the Syrian war, we shouldn’t underestimate
the way in which, by contributing to the loss
of identity and self-respect, urban zoning and misguided,
inhumane architecture have nurtured sectarian
divisions and hatred. Over time, the united city
has morphed into a city center with ghettos along its circumference. And in turn, the coherent communities
became distinct social groups, alienated from each other
and alienated from the place. From my point of view, losing the sense of belonging to a place and a sense of sharing it
with someone else has made it a lot easier to destroy. The clear example can be seen
in the informal housing system, which used to host, before the war,
over 40 percent of the population. Yes, prior to the war,
almost half of the Syrian population lived in slums, peripheral areas
without proper infrastructure, made of endless rows of bare block boxes containing people, people who mostly belonged
to the same group, whether based on religion,
class, origin or all of the above. This ghettoized urbanism
proved to be a tangible precursor of war. Conflict is much easier
between pre-categorized areas — where the “others” live. The ties that used
to bind the city together — whether they were social,
through coherent building, or economic, through trade in the souk, or religious, through
the coexistent presence — were all lost in the misguided
and visionless modernization of the built environment. Allow me an aside. When I read about heterogeneous urbanism
in other parts of the world, involving ethnic neighborhoods
in British cities or around Paris or Brussels, I recognize the beginning
of the kind of instability we have witnessed
so disastrously here in Syria. We have severely destroyed cities, such as Homs, Aleppo,
Daraa and many others, and almost half of the population
of the country is now displaced. Hopefully, the war will end, and the question that,
as an architect, I have to ask, is: How do we rebuild? What are the principles
that we should adopt in order to avoid repeating
the same mistakes? From my point of view, the main focus
should be on creating places that make their people feel they belong. Architecture and planning
need to recapture some of the traditional values
that did just that, creating the conditions
for coexistence and peace, values of beauty
that don’t exhibit ostentation, but rather, approachability and ease, moral values that promote
generosity and acceptance, architecture that is for everyone
to enjoy, not just for the elite, just as used to be in the shadowed alleys
of the old Islamic city, mixed designs that encourage
a sense of community. There is a neighborhood here in Homs
that’s called Baba Amr that has been fully destroyed. Almost two years ago,
I introduced this design into a UN-Habitat competition
for rebuilding it. The idea was to create an urban fabric
inspired by a tree, capable of growing
and spreading organically, echoing the traditional bridge
hanging over the old alleys, and incorporating apartments,
private courtyards, shops, workshops, places for parking
and playing and leisure, trees and shaded areas. It’s far from perfect, obviously. I drew it during the few hours
of electricity we get. And there are many possible ways
to express belonging and community through architecture. But compare it with the freestanding,
disconnected blocks proposed by the official project
for rebuilding Baba Amr. Architecture is not the axis
around which all human life rotates, but it has the power to suggest
and even direct human activity. In that sense, settlement,
identity and social integration are all the producer and product
of effective urbanism. The coherent urbanism
of the old Islamic city and of many old European
towns, for instance, promote integration, while rows of soulless housing
or tower blocks, even when they are luxurious, tend to promote isolation and “otherness.” Even simple things like shaded places or fruit plants
or drinking water inside the city can make a difference
in how people feel towards the place, and whether they consider it
a generous place that gives, a place that’s worth keeping,
contributing to, or whether they see it
as an alienating place, full of seeds of anger. In order for a place to give,
its architecture should be giving, too. Our built environment matters. The fabric of our cities is reflected
in the fabric of our souls. And whether in the shape
of informal concrete slums or broken social housing or trampled old towns or forests of skyscrapers, the contemporary urban archetypes that have emerged
all across the Middle East have been one cause of the alienation
and fragmentation of our communities. We can learn from this. We can learn how to rebuild
in another way, how to create an architecture
that doesn’t contribute only to the practical and economic
aspects of people’s lives, but also to their social, spiritual
and psychological needs. Those needs were totally overlooked
in the Syrian cities before the war. We need to create again
cities that are shared by the communities that inhabit them. If we do so, people will not feel the need to seek identities opposed
to the other identities all around, because they will all feel at home. Thank you for listening.

Comments (100)

  1. Sure… I bet if Syria would have had European style/design housings and markets, then the saudis and it's Middle-Eastern allies, like qatar, oman and israel wouldn't want to lay oil and gas pipelines along the shores of Syria (that Assad does not agree to) to supply Europe with it. TED… I am truly disappointed. I thought you only "publish" serious, honest and useful materials. What comes next?! Perhaps some saudi royalty woman standing out that the Syrian government is throwing babies out from incubators?! Because that is what they have said about Iraq, but turned out to be a complete lie (along many others)!

  2. What I don't understand is how architecture that incorporates themes of inclusiveness and affection for local communities can achieve the efficiency necessary for urban working and living spaces. Providing utilities and safe structures that can support the population density needed for an high-functioning urban economy has only been achieved via the layout of "freestanding disconnected blocks." Anyone in the comments section have examples that challenge this notion?
    I pray for you and your family's safety as well as for the success of your challenging endevors as an acrchitect Mrs. Al-Sabouni

  3. 'Wow. Stupid Muslim. Just because the 'West' mistrusted a few abominations I'm going to hate the lot of them. AMERICA RULES! Also Muslims are stupid. Now, if you'll excuse me, I have a hamburger to eat.' I've spent a while learning Arabic culture and I honestly think this video is great. Architecture + World problems. Brilliant.

    The first part was a joke, for those of you who couldn't tell. Mimicking the ignorant community. No hate. ;3

  4. Urbanism as she claims it is a precursor for war? Architecture from the French is the cause for the hatred in Syria? Doesn't make any sense whatsoever. Urbanism is the reason she's on youtube and modernization is the reason she has the means to still communicate instead of living in a hut. If harmony is defined by living in poverty and farmlands, she should live in North Korea and see how happiness really defined under a dictator. Syria, prior to being modernized is under a tyrant and if she still appreciates that then that just tells you how brainwashed these people are.

  5. I wish you all the luck in the World. It's sad what's happening in your Country.

  6. what about a lack of art appreciation or global warming …….
    Far King Stew Pid ……

  7. No not achitechure, ISLAM is the cause of hatred and murder. Houses don't brain wash the young to kill.

    INVADE western nations so you can BLUDGE OFF THE WELFARE SYSTEM !

  8. What she is saying also has an analogue with Israel and Palestine. Prior to the establishment of Israel, Jews and Muslims lived in the area in a peaceful and multicultural setting. But then Israel was established as a land exclusively for the Jewish people. It created distinctions and walls between people where previously there was none 🙁

    There is no need to erect these walls between people.

  9. One possible problem I can see is the distrust and anger that has now grown up between the groups that make up Lebanon or Homs. People might might have blended before the war might now only see their neighbors as enemies who killed family members.

  10. She wants the architecture to reflect the way that it was in the "old Islamic cities" just like the jihadists who are fighting desperately to install a system that is vastly inferior to what is already on offer.

  11. must be a hard time being an architect in syria right now. don't worry after they finished the demolition you guys will be more than busy. no need for self promotion on ted.

  12. what's with all the hate for Islam? I feel like all these people spreading fear and hatred of Muslims have never met one. They aren't some crazy people trying to kill everyone. They're just people with religious views. the problem is with those that twist the meaning of Islam, which judging from Muslims I've met, is a religion of peace.

  13. More like: how The Anglo American triad created the foundation to destabilize the entire Middle East to connect a pipeline and ensure no country besides Cuba and North Korea leaves the petro dollar again.. We all know what happened to Iraq and Afghanistan

  14. How US-sponsored ISIS and "opposition" thrown the Syria into ruines

  15. Yeah marcenaries have no sence of beloging to a place in Syria.
    When you see concrete everywhere, you think as if the country is prepared for a war to come!!

  16. I love the perspective, insight, and vision plus inspiration to rebuild a better more integrated Syria, and I think several other cities around the world could take the idea to heart on urban planning and community building… but I have to admit I find it a bit disingenuous to tag the ongoing war on poor architecture.
    Part of it, perhaps, but I'd say it's either a minor problem compared to the whole, or more like a symptom of the bigger problems. And while architecture, urban planning, and thinking differently about community integration helps, I don't think it's enough to prevent scenarios like Syria.
    Great cities with great civilizations rose and fell with civil wars, and in some cases, we're only left with the ruins of great architecture to look at afterwards.
    Of course, everyone is welcome to have a different perspective on this, but imho if we don't want cases like Syria ever happening again… it just seems to me that we have to dig deeper than this.

  17. Excellent and thought-provoking video. Thank you.

  18. It all US and it's allies fault

  19. الله ينتقم من العمائر المجرمة اللي دمرت سوريا وكل من عاونها من اسمنت وخرسانة وغيرها

  20. Oh gee, and here I thought it was US / NATO warhawks bombing the country, and arming terrorists to do their ground fighting for them… you know, like in a dozen other countries in the past several decades.

  21. architecture riiight

  22. Amazing concept. Wish more people listen to this.

  23. The Architecture of your Brain and mindset is what laid the foundation for the brutal war …


    Taqyia bullshit.

  25. Amazing move from TED, it challenges all barriers and makes TED talks available from everywhere.

  26. good ideas, good talk, thank you

  27. Nice reading from the teleprompter, ever consider radical islam is the cause for your issues?

  28. It's the snackbar on her head 😛

  29. This is indeed a global problem with the architectures of modern cities. European cities have a lot of "bad" neighborhoods that are always looking the same: big old ugly concrete blocks which (often) have a poorer and less educated population. I really think that we need to stop building those and start thinking about empowering neighborhoods that will mix people and promote culture, education and social mix.

  30. Reason ==> Wahhabi-ism + US war machine + Saudi greed.

  31. Coincidence does not prove causality.

    Sure, architecture often reflects a society and what is happening in it, but to somehow blame architecture for causing war is disingenuous. War can, and has, broken out in beautiful and ugly places, urban and rural places, suburbia and dense urban centres.

    The contributions that architecture can make are great, and there are some wonderful ideas here, but it won't stop war.

  32. Can we stop typing hatred comment EVERY SINGLE TIME there is an islamic or middle eastern topics. you see you all not a political experts, you dont actually experience it directly, you all dont see the problems clearly, you all just have an internet connection so stop these non sense right now because hatred cannot win against hatred, with your hatred comments (which makes you as bad as those bad people) youre not making any change nor making you a better person so instead of commenting hatred and bigotry why dont you all think a thoughtful neutral and peaceful solution or at least stfu

  33. Great analysis! Thank you Marwa.

  34. Islam is anti humanity. Remove islam and earth wud turn into Paradise in 2 decades.

  35. Holy damn. What did the French Build? Moats, barbed wire and watchtowers? I'd really like To see some citations about the claims.

  36. 'Hopefully the war will end '- all the signs point to it continuing indefinitely ,but the speaker made some good points about architecture.

  37. I'm not shure weather architecture is more a reason or a symptom of the changes society undergoes. But I'm with her on rebuilding. It can mark a restart. Let's hope Architects and citybuilders will soon shape Syrian cities and not violence and destruction.

  38. 1:50 because of the "religion of peace" duhh

  39. city living by nature is an isolated experience. if you want a sense of community and belonging, you should live in the rural country side, where everybody knows you. architecture is not the answer to social problems. sure, good architecture is pleasing to the eye and comfortable to live in, but real social problems stems from other sources. my thoughts.

  40. The real causes of war are not only social, political and economic but also to a large degree, religious. Our belief systems create hatreds and help us believe we should take retribution. I firmly believe the solution to many wars has to begin with putting religion in its place which is as a private matter, not something that we should wear on our sleeve, our head, or what kind of weapon we sling over our shoulder.

  41. Seems like playing medal of honor when i see syria.. Do they respawn ?

  42. War is the norm in most of the world and throughout history. Mrs. Sabouni does not make a compelling argument that architecture and colonialism is the cause of current conflicts. She needs to look at the history of violence in the middle east and throughout the world before and after the architecture of colonialism and accept it as the norm.

  43. Her talk was really easy to understand because she was just so genuine.

    It is not easy to have your voice heard in an already war-torn country and represent it. I hope more people get to see this, as well as know more of what's happening in Syria.

  44. Her talk was really easy to understand because she was just so genuine.

    It is not easy to have your voice heard in an already war-torn country and represent it. I hope more people get to see this, as well as know more of what's happening in Syria.

  45. really nice idea. a lot of western countries think that the world should operate in the way we do but there is growing levels of depression in urban areas and growing levels of racism shown by support for Donald Trump and Brexit (and many of the disgusting comments on this video). It will however be difficult to execute this idea effectively. I personally wouldn't put housing over the walkways because it kind of disconnects people from the real world and makes the urban landscape appear to be the only thing. I hope the new architecture will be successful in making the world a better place, and can set an example for other nations 🙂

  46. What a great concept to develop a city in the light of the alternative standard square block. Hope you do get your idea accepted and keep it up.

  47. Crap fields bellow

  48. it all happened because of the USA

  49. Obama's incompetence made Syria's war worse

  50. architecture and urban design…. "the fabric of our cities is reflected in the fabric of our souls". well said <3 it is universal law that the container effects (and sets limitations and the laws) of the contents' reactions.

  51. I guess she has to thank that ISIS and "moderate rebels" that Washington supports with money and weapons.

  52. +10 minutes of entire hypothetical claims and assertions based on what? Any real scientific research? Just pure personal opinions. Ted used to be a place for real scientific presentations.

  53. This topic is the biggest load of crap. Architecture has nothing to do with planting bombs. But people will apologize for Islam forever apparently.

  54. Marwa, your perspective as to architecture is understandable. Architecture is important but not so powerful as to create an endless Syrian war that devastates the nation of Syria and killed thundreds of thousand of civilians. Syrian architecture has little to do with inciting intolerance, separatist movement, or civil war. The Syrian war is a proxy war waged by Syrian political entity or factions on behalf of USA or Russia. The Syrian war is almost identical to the proxy Vietnam War, Contra War, Yemeni war, and the Ukraine war: USA supported soldiers against Russian supported soldiers. The Syrian war will end when both USA and Russia stop delivering money and bullets in support of their respective proxy soldiers.

  55. her english is amazing

  56. Yes ! , She is absolutely true , how can we live in a place of belonging does not feel towards him ? How can we accept palace built beside the shanty houses or scanty . Each of these revolutions in the Middle East due to the loss of a sense of belonging to the place , whether class or even doctrine , as we take into account the psyche, into account the psyches of others are human;
    beings probably better than us, but do not have , such as what we have !

  57. Syrian war has been decisive in making islam popular

  58. If you are a baker, the answer always seems to be 'bread'.

    If you are an architect…

  59. WOW people in the comment section are the smartest people in the world.. I am so glad I scrolled down to glimpse the intelligence of so many people . . . . . . . . . . …….. . . . . . ……

  60. Spot on. The distance between private space, public space, and third space can and does lead to social isolation, and thus differentiation, to the point where the community fragments itself. It happens in cities all around the world. Some places just happen to be more vulnerable to disintegration because of other factors, like Syria.

  61. Feminist claptrap.

  62. Wow your plans for Baba are really inspirational, as a future architect I can see how your plans cater to the people rather than just give a nice appearance. Your philosophy towards the issue is also amazing since first hand, you can see what the public needs to reform and how architecture can help this by reuniting and redeveloping the town old to bring back familiar qualities in architecture and atmosphere rather than refreshing the image and flushing out the old – I praise you for this

  63. Based solely on the horrible title…"How Syria's architecture laid the foundation for brutal war" This talk is utter drivel …..

  64. The emotional value of architecture has been neglected for far too long

  65. Lol how about the Rothschild banking cartel and the oil exports devaluing the petrodollar? How little everyone knows of the world

  66. Dumbass staying in a war zone… if you dont fight, LEAVE

  67. This is total garbage. She lives in a war zone, and I don't, so it makes me feel a little guilty to say that I don't believe she understands the first thing about this armed conflict. She's just a daydreaming architect fully absorbed in her art. How it is that she can live in a city that looks like it got hit with an atomic weapon, AND STILL hold on to the idea that all of the strife is due to some Frenchmen blowing up Syrian buildings a few generations ago. She's talking about things like "proportions of harmony" and "viewing where the others live" and "building an organic urban form" as significant factors of the Syrian Civil War. I may be a spoiled, clueless idiot who knows nothing of war, but I would suggest that 99.99% of all Syrians currently wielding a rifle don't give one iota about the architecture of the buildings around them. Especially since many of them are levelled.

  68. not sure if I'm wrong. but doesn't this just point towards forcing full integration. vs allowing ethically un-diverse regions/housing?

  69. Dear Ms Marwa , unfortunately profit is behind everything and the kind of architecture you are dreaming about wont exist in middle east as in any other country in the world . People build buildings to make money and not to make the citizens to feel at home . Every city in europe is surrounded by ghettos where people are divided by class / religion or race . this is the world we asked for , we all trade are souls for a colour Tv and a cell phone .

  70. the solution is eco-investment that could revitalize the community with local tech-growning farming markets, similar to off the grid communities. War, oil, gold, opium, weapons, all stem to selfish interests.

  71. Her talk is interesting and on the basis of harmony, for future planning, sure, it would be helpful to integrate people in the neighborhoods. But it had nothing to do with the war.
    The war is about money, power and a gas pipeline, not architecture, religion, race.
    The war would have happened no matter the structure of the city.
    I very much like the idea of intermingled neighborhoods; but it did not act as a cause of this war. This war was Russia, the USA and the geographical location.

  72. Who is gonna rebuld Syria, Not I said "Saudi Arabia who was puppeteering Obama, Not I said Iran who's main goal is to destroy Israel and America, Not I said Hillary who sold out America by foreign entities engaging in Pay to play in order to change American policy, and then there's Trump, I will make you all pay.

  73. School of Life's video "How to Make an Attractive City" has a lot of tips on how to build an attractive city that promotes spontaneous human interaction. which includes public squares, closely built buildings with porches and balconies encouraging interaction, and architecture which contributes to the beauty of the surrounding area as well as allowing opportunities to appreciate the landscape.

  74. The content may offer an insight but the presentation was lacking in style, distracting from content. I couldn't finish watching.

  75. America wanted democracy by supporting Islamist gangs such as ISIS, Al Qaeda, Islamic Front, Ahrar Al Sham and many more that wanted an Islamic State.

  76. As an Ex-Muslim I must say that the conflict in Syria is related to many factors, but so long as Muslims identify themselves solely by their religion than they're going to continue being volunteer victims in denial about their sad state of affairs. Because attacking the irrationality, barbarism and insanity of Islam has become tantamount to personal attack and societal treason. Islam is a problem, and until Muslim's leave their stone age baggage behind they are going to continue having problems in their societies.

  77. I can see that architecture can help but ending the beliefs which divide people is far more important.

  78. Fascinating video, so much food for thought. Thank you!

  79. How did so many idiots in the comment section, end up on an Architectural tedx talk. Hope to god their not architects

  80. اللهم انصر إخواننا في الشام

  81. i always think about this issue while discussing the urban fabric but now with such a huge effort by you finally reached to discourage the reverse evolutionary development (Urban planning and architecture characters and identity of a city)
    Betterment of cities cause a great damage to every individual and humanity is at stake. #LoveforallHatredfornone

  82. Very interesting, thank you Marwa

  83. I am sorry segregation does not come from architecture but from culture.

  84. I feel like it makes a lot of sense what she sais. I personally feel that the sense of being excluded from a group of people can be one of the worst feelings one can experience. If the way we build our cities supports us local communities finding together, we should surely do that.

    I also have to say that I was not that familiar with the fact that the syrian war is actually small groups (like from certain neighborhoods) against other groups, I just knew there where the IS and didnt realize that theyre simply somewhat ethnic small groups that exist in many cities but are connected to each other, just not to theire actual neighbors…

    I see problems like this where I live too. I'm in germany and theres certain groups here too that are isolated on their own instead of feeling included. Of course our cities are divided in different areas too. Mabye just because some architects made it themselves a little to simple by spreading out the larger cities which automatically generates distances (which can act like borders) between the different areas…

  85. Talked to my mum a lot about how impacting architecture is. She said that it connects people and bring people together and such, which is why she expresses a dislike towards tall buildings. But I never realised how much it can emotionally and socially impact people.
    Thank you so much Ted for sharing this talk with us.
    I want to become an architect in the future and help to rebuild Syria.

  86. Just one more way for middle easterners to blame Europe.

  87. Excelente! Tá tudo ligado sim. Partilhando!

  88. The thing is that wars are big business for arms and buildings industries, so after the war building companies will speculate with the land and build as cheap as possible as they did before.

  89. This is a great video by a proud, and forward thinking woman. I hope the UN approves a design that, if not hers, shares the same vision of fostering community through architecture.

  90. She was right to said that 'Rows of isolated tower blocks promote integration, isolation and otherness. I am 60 years old and have been living in different isolated tower blocks during my last 50 years life time. I hate it and have no sense of belonging. I still miss the small room I used to live before I was 10 years old. I miss my neighborhood who have played with me, given me candy and helped me when I fell.

  91. بداية : شكرا على مساهمتك في موقع TED يا مروى
    لكن ما تذكرينه عن الهندسة المعمارية في خلق الانسجام بين الناس يأتي في الدرجة السابعة والستين بعد المائة من اسباب قيام الثورات .
    الذي يحقق الرضا و يسهم في التعايش هو الشعور بالعدل
    الاسد و نظامه الاجرامي و منح الامتيازات لابناء طائفة بعينها هو ما فجر الوضع في سوريا
    انظري حولك في كل دول العالم : هل قامت ثورات في البلدان التي تحوي ناطحات سحاب كامريكا مثلا .. وهل تحقق السلم الاهلي في بلدان يعيش شعبها على ارصفة الطرقات بنغلاديش مثلا ؟؟؟ الجواب لا
    مساهمتك بعيدة عن الواقع مع كل التقدير والاحترام

  92. Yeah, it is always the fault of white people. What an easy excuse

  93. what a waste of 10 minutes

  94. 😑😑😑😑😑😑😑

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