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How Bacteria Rule Over Your Body – The Microbiome

How Bacteria Rule Over Your Body – The Microbiome


Microbes are everywhere, on your phone, in your water bottle, on your hands before you wash them, on your hands after you wash them, and literally everywhere else on top of you too. Microbes are omnipresent at any moment,
and there is nothing we can do about it So, millions of years ago we made a pact, we give them shelter and food, and in turn they work for us. But the more we learn about this partnership,
the more it looks like a cold war Inside our mother’s womb,
humans start out sterile When we are born and traveling
through the birth canal, billions of our mother’s bacteria cover
every single part of our bodies. This is an essential part of human health. Children born via C-section have a
higher rate of asthma, immune diseases and even leukemia. So our bodies do not only accept the invasion
of microorganisms, they welcome it. Over millions of years, we co-evolved to
make the best of our relationship. Mother’s milk for example, contains special sugars that are
meant to feed and support certain groups of microbes, work as a decoy for others, and help to modulate the
immune system. It takes up to two years, until a healthy
microbe community has formed. Every human has their own unique microbiome,
made up of bacteria, viruses, fungi and other organisms. We have three categories of guests,
on and in our bodies. One: Quiet passengers that do their own thing,
and are politely ignored. By being there, they take up space and keep
more aggressive intruders in check. Two: Guests that harm us, But with whom we’ve learned to live, for example, bacteria that literally create
acid that melts our teeth, if we don’t brush enough. They want to take up as much
space as they can, and we don’t want them to. But, we can’t get rid of them entirely. Three: Friendly fellows that our bodies
want to have around, most of them are a community of
380,000 billion bacteria, from up to 5,000 different species,
that live in our gut. These gut microorganisms help us digest food, and pull additional calories from things
that we can’t digest ourselves. Unfortunately, our gut is also the
perfect point of attack for intruders, so it’s guarded by an aggressive army, our immune system. To survive here, our microbiome
co-evolved with us to be able to communicate
with our body. The most important part of that is to ask
the immune system to not kill them. But, they also have a real motivation
to keep our gut healthy, so some of them produce a
messenger substances, that help to educate the immune system, and others stimulate the gut cells
to regenerate faster. But, over the last few years. Evidence has emerged that the
influence of our gut microbiome, goes much much further. It might even talk directly to our brain. We’ve observed a few curious things, 90% of our body’s serotonin, an important messenger substance
for nerve cells, is produced in the gut. Some scientists think the
microbiome does this, to communicate with the vagus nerve. The information highway of our nervous system. Other examples are bacteria that
stimulate immune cells in the gut, so they send a kind of alarm
signal to the brain. Here, it activates immune cells that help
the brain recover from injuries. Since the brain decides what we eat, the microbiome is interested
in a healthy brain. A new field of science is
opening up here, and we’re just on the verge of
understanding how these complex systems inside our bodies interact. But we are starting to see how
much our microbiome actually influences us and our behavior. Take depression for example, Healthy rats fed microbes from the
guts of depressed people, began showing anxiety-like behavior, and symptoms that look like depression. And in early 2017, a study linked the
microbiome to intelligence, by connecting a certain set up
of bacteria in newborns, with better motor and language skills. But it might also influence our daily lives. Tests with fruit flies, showed that their microbiome, influenced
what kinds of food they craved. This could mean your microbes are
able to tell your brain, which food it should get them. Although, this is not a one-way street The seed for our microbiome
comes from our mother, but how it develops and changes, is
determined by what we eat. the organisms in our gut feed
on different things, some like fibers and leafy greens, others go for sugars and starches, and some love greasy fries and butter. Our gut is like a garden in which
we constantly decide, what will grow and blossom. If we eat healthily, we breed bacteria
that like healthy food. If we eat a lot of fast food, then we
breed fast food loving bacteria. Life is hard, so we can get trapped
in a vicious circle. You have a stressful time, and eat lots
of burgers and fries and pizza. This is awesome for fast food bacteria, they multiply and multiply, and take up space
from vegetable loving bacteria. But even worse, they send signals to the
brain to continue what it’s doing. this makes you want more
fast food. Which breeds more fast
food bacteria, which makes you crave fast food,
and so on. This kind of self-reinforcing cycle, could play a huge role in obesity. But, it’s important to stress that you
can fight this process, and reverse it, by eating healthily and
breeding more good bacteria. Beyond weight gain, our microbiome
has also been linked to other serious diseases like autism, schizophrenia, and cancer. One of the earliest symptoms of Parkinson’s,
is actually gut problems. If your body is overrun with
bacteria that harm you, there is often only one solution. You bring in an army of good guys. That’s very easy, You just transplant some healthy poop. You do that by literally transferring poop,
from a healthy person, into your gut. This method is already used,
to cure diarrhea that’s caused when C. difficile bacteria,
take over a gut microbiome. But we just don’t know enough about
the complex interplay at work here yet. For example, a transplant from an overweight
donor cured a woman’s diarrhea, but contributed to her obesity down the line. This caused some ways and another
study tried to reverse the effect. Poop transplants from slim people
to obese ones, gave them a more diverse microbiome, and made them less sensitive to insulin. Both things that also happen when
people lose weight We need to do a lot more science,
to really understand how our microbes make us
healthy or sick. But, whether we like it or not. We need our microbiome, and it needs us. We’ll never have our bodies to ourselves. But we have gained a powerful ally, if we can just keep the peace.

Comments (100)

  1. There's brand new stuff in the Kurzgesagt Merch Shop. Check it out here: shop.kurzgesagt.org

  2. So start eating healthy, or have a doctor insert someone else’s poop into your….

  3. I absolutely love the idea of a little community in our gut

  4. So the solution to obesity is to put skinny people's poop into your butt? I am skinny eventhough I eat a lot, maybe I can sell my shit.

  5. In Elementery school, the science teachers usually play educational videos. These should be those videos.

  6. This is interesting, but also annoying that Bill Gates is pushing his agenda.

  7. poop transplants???// wtf

  8. 6:20 insane i would rather hang myself XD

  9. For any source for any project I just type kurgsgesagt. Ur vids are awesome
    👍👌

  10. I love sour foods … literally enjoy an entire jar of pickles once every couple of months. Or a whole bag of salt n vinegar chips once a week haha

  11. And based on this video, they're cute, too. ☺

  12. You do not need another's poop. There are medical pills full of symbiotic gut bacteria you can take as any other pill lol.

  13. My gut bacteria is turning me into an alcoholic.

  14. Gotta stop listening to my gut feeling

  15. Super video
    Best awareness

  16. Other peoples poop ingested into the gut???
    You guys just blew my mind

  17. Me: I don't consent!
    Also me: dies in 3 days

  18. It is amazing WOW!

  19. I guess I will never look at bacteria the same way again..

  20. Autism is NOT a disease, let alone serious! It's a disorder spectrum. I have it, so I know.

  21. cure fatness by putting skinny people poop into fat people

  22. "Inside our mothers womb" looks at mother

  23. "Diseases like Autism" one of the most uneducated statements I have heard in a while. Autism is NOT a disease ffs. It is a developmental disorder. Do your research before making such false and ridiculous claims !

  24. This gives the saying “the way to a man’s heart is through his stomach” a whole new meaning. Though in this case it’s more their brain.

  25. So that's why I prolly have asthma?

  26. i was born in space!
    JK of course not

  27. Theres something ive been wondering can our own imune system attack our own seels on acident or on purpose if on purpose is it pecus the sell has bacteria in it(i already know it attacks our organs and blood cells that arnt the same type)and if on acident then i got nothing?????

  28. This can a wonderfull project !

  29. I want to hear more about how the bugs communicate with my body. . .

    TGC 🙂
    Blessings in abundance

  30. 4:54
    Narrator: "And some like greasy fries in butter."
    French fries: Is covered in jelly
    Do I really need to say more?

  31. so bacteria control you?

  32. When a police officer says pick up my dogs poop I’ll just say it’s my dogs bacteria’s poop.

  33. I never knew that gut bacteria were so important, but it makes sense when you think about it.

    Millions of years of symbiotic relationship can create tons of new species that diverge from the existing ones, and it's only a matter of time before they integrate into everything else.

    They probably originally got there just from being on some food so every animal species probably has one.

  34. Now I'm curious. My curious bacteria are hungry for knowledge.

  35. Want A sprite cranberry?

  36. Hmm thats why i became a weeb when i ate a burger who was licked by a naruto runner in macdonalds

  37. It’s kinda like what animals are for the earth

    And then humans(cancer) came around and threw everything thing off

  38. gets to the poop transplant part you want me to put what in my gut?

  39. Purely because of this video I'm taking a break from sugar for a week.

    This video indicates that cravings get easier when you don't give in to them!

  40. doctors hate him, using this small trick he lost 24 pounds in a week. <<click here to see how>>

  41. I understand what they meant to say but the term “disease” for autism is incorrect as it’s a neurological disorder not a disease.

  42. Did you just say "the brain decides [what we] eat?" You're kidding right?? 😂😂🤣🤣

  43. no body else's crap is going in to my ass

  44. "In a nutshell" cool is there memes (until it starts) oh

  45. "Healthy rats fed microbes from the guts of depressed people showed anxiety like behavior and symptoms of depression" Lol, i'd be depressed and anxious too if someone fed me gut microbes.

  46. The bacteria look so cute

  47. So microbes makes life either dangerouse or nice from how you decide to eat or almost anything

  48. 結局はバランスが大事という事。

  49. Microbes more like Microorgasms -James

  50. another thing that proves that the microbiome is a cold war:
    about 2 days after we die, the microbiome turns on us and begins to eat us. this contributes SIGNIFICANTLY to decomposition

  51. I am still Rule about 99,9% of my body

  52. I wish I could be that comment that gets 1k likes because they thought of something genius.

  53. you know what they say, all toasters toast toast

  54. Eses??!! (Its heces!!) Who the hll translates subtitles to spanish?

  55. The birthing animation gave me nightmares

  56. Theres geopolitics inside our bodies.

  57. So, does this mean that if you stop eating, your bacterias stops craving food in all , and your intestines stops working.

  58. People can literally change emotions,health and body shape just by getting shit pushed into their but lol

  59. Is it just me or does this sound a lot like Venom from Spiderman

  60. person poops
    person puts it in another person
    person 2: wait what just happened

  61. I am alone, i have depression and i crave a girlfriend. What type of microbiome do I have ??

  62. So, babies get their gut flora from their mothers, yes.
    But you don't want to know how that happens, believe me…

  63. So this is why my gut hurt so much when I got school anxiety from being bullied and I felt better when I relaxed playing video games, like fallout 4 and helping Sheffield get a home in my settlement and that nuka cola he needed

  64. Maybe next year somebody would sell his poop for 150$/kg..

  65. Do you know what it would be fun that you put on the description your dialog to be easier to study plisss 😇🙏

  66. AAAAAAAA MY SMARTPHONE *throws it away*

  67. is not in french 🙁

  68. A complex and diverse system in our stomachs…. And it's called "gut science"

  69. Thay are so cuuuzuuuiiuiiiiirhrgurtttttttt

  70. 2:36 hello I am here to hel…squish

  71. No mention of opportunistic microorganisms that are normally fine until we get immuno-suppressed?

  72. U mean I wasn't myself entirely?

  73. No wonder back in the days that people think they think from the gut.

  74. Can viruses attack viruses

  75. So it’s not my fault i’m dumb?

  76. So you are what you eat, literally?

  77. So some people literally shove shit up their own ass

  78. C R A P T R A N S P L A N T

  79. Autism isn't a hardware not software

  80. Someone please give me their slim smart and happy shit please.

  81. Small correction needed: Autism is not a disease (5:59 into the video). But nice video as always!

  82. CRISPR Is Just The Perfect Tool For Modifying Humans For Need

  83. very cool vide 😉

  84. Kurzgesagt, when did you stop linking in the description the academic sources for the facts found in your video?

  85. So instead of slicing up and preserving Albert Einstein’s brain, we should have gone for his gut?

    Perhaps some day, instead of having adds for “fragrance of Antonio Banderas” we’ll have “probiotic of Einstein” xD

  86. Life fucking blows xD

  87. thats how adicshon worcks

  88. 1:04
    Now i know why i have asthma for years
    Tbh it kinda suck when you have months of no sweets and anything cold like drinks

  89. My gut want anything random

  90. They are kinda cute :/

  91. Time to refuse what they want

  92. Is this part of the Minecraft update?

  93. 5:30 So, it's "you eat what you are", it's almost like the reverse.

  94. My coffee microbiome rules over all

  95. 5:48 What the balanced poop!
    Those fatty microbes are as much 'healthy food' as the fibre ones etc.
    I'd guess that the scale is probably like balancing a plate, with a balance of our microbes on every part of the plate.
    We shouldn't think 'fight the unbalance'. A war is necessary to keep a war going. We should help to balance the unbalance. Probably better to eat a lot AND different, than to just eat less of what's to much (or the war will result in an empty plate).

    Try learning about ayurveda! That seems to care about our bodily balance.
    It would be a plus for me if you taught about what you found out as well, I'd guess. You make very good videos! <3

  96. so there are bacteria that love alcohol in an alcoholic guts

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