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Black Dwarf Stars: Corpses of Creation

Black Dwarf Stars: Corpses of Creation


Around 90 percent of the observed stars in the universe are like our Sun. Called Main Sequence stars by astronomers, our Sun and others like it dominate the heavens. And when they die, many will ultimately leave behind a dark, stellar corpse known as a black dwarf. .A stellar remnant that has yet to be found, because the time it takes for them to form is much longer than the age of the universe. As stars go, our sun is rather ordinary. It
began its life as a cloud of gas and dust that eventually condensed by gravity into
a protostar – a young stellar body powered by heat generated from collapsing material. Main sequence stars can range in size from
about a tenth of the mass of the sun up to 8 times as massive – and how long they live depends on their size. The sun will shine for roughly 10 billion
years but a star about 20 times larger will only last a fraction of that, say 20 million
years or so due to the higher temperatures and faster consumption of its nuclear fuel. When our Sun, and stars like it, begin to
die, they don’t explode into fiery supernovae, instead, as their nuclear fuel runs out the
pressure holding them up against gravity lowers, causing them to contract a bit. This contraction heats up remaining material
and helium begins to fuse, creating more heat. This causes the outer shell of the star to
expand in size from 100 to 1000 times the diameter of the sun today. The sun has now become a red giant. Main Sequence stars spend anywhere from 1000 to one billion years as a red giant until eventually the helium begins to run out. The star shrinks again, blowing
the outer layers out into space as a beautiful planetary nebula. If the star is less than 1.4 times the mass
of the sun, something extraordinary happens. The remaining core collapses in on itself
so fast that the atoms of the star are packed together so closely that their electrons orbital shells are pressing against one another. This stellar remnant is known as a white dwarf,
a compact sphere of atoms so tightly crushed that the entire mass of the sun would fit
in an area the size of the Earth. This is the fate of our sun in 5 billion years.
This white dwarf is very bright, but its not shining due to fusion. We are looking at the
remnant heat of the core collapse, no new energy is being added, which means the core
is slowly cooling. What happens next has never been seen because
there hasn’t been enough time in the universe to see it, but all white dwarf stars in the
universe are cooling. Very slowly. Astronomers estimate that it will take a white
dwarf star tens of hundreds of billions of years to completely cool and become what is
known as a black dwarf. For comparison, if there was a white dwarf
star shining at the beginning of the universe, it would have cooled to only 3,000 kelvin
13.7 billion years later that’s just 2,000 degrees below the Sun’s present temperature. This means no one has yet observed or indirectly measured a black dwarf star the universe is simply not old enough for them to have
been formed. But some 100 trillion years hence, as the
universe leaves the stelliferous era of the stars and begins the degenerate era of the universe, 90 percent of the celestial bodies in our cosmos will be these black stellar corpses, hiding in the
blackness of eternity.

Comments (100)

  1. Amazing video as always! Thanks for the content 🙂

  2. This was awesome tony! Love to see more like it!

  3. One of the best voices ever. Good video.

  4. So presumably there will be a period in the far future in which the surface of the sun has about the same area and about the same temperature as Earth's does now.

  5. You said 90% of stars are like our sun, main sequence stars. But aren't red drawfs the most popular type of stars?

  6. Simply mind-boggling

  7. Hey Tony, what determines the size of a star when it forms? If there's one temperature/pressure where fusion starts and the gas cloud is usually blown away when that happens, how can there be so many different stars of different sizes and masses throughout the universe?

  8. Hi can someone explain to me why white dwarfs spin at incredibly high speeds? And, will they ever stop spinning if no forces are applied of course?

  9. I don't know why but this video has some what of a 90's feel to it.
    But keep them coming your videos are the best astronomy content out there.Also is there a reason you are only uploading 720p?

  10. the sad story is that the human race probably won't be around anymore before black dwarf actually start appearing.

  11. ssspppppppaaaaacccceee

  12. I wonder about properties of the matter Black Dwarfs will be consisted of. Hot ones are made of neutron superfluid, but how will it behave when cooled down? Will it lose it´s liquid form and became solid? Will the star even be able to hold together considering unimaginable gravity and tidal forces? Couldn´t this material became the strongest compound available in the universe? So many questions….

  13. Stellar remnants are fascinating and it is even more astounding to think that there will be a time when they will constitute the largest population of compact bodies.
    A question that I've asked in fora like this one but not yet seen answered is the possibility of dark globular clusters – i.e. globular clusters that contain a high amount of stellar remnants. Is it not possible that a globular cluster of high-mass stars may form and after a large proportion have run through their evolution they have remained gravitationally bound, resulting into a globular cluster with low luminosity for its mass?
    Essentially can there be globular clusters composed mainly of neurton stars (and black holes)?
    A cursory search has only yielded one recent paper on the topic: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1503.04198v2.pdf
    Are there any others?

  14. That was really amazing, darkness awaits us all in the end

  15. How will the black dwarves decay?

  16. If you could extract a chunk of black dwarf material (ignore the how of that, assume magic) and take it into space separate from the rest of the star. would it remain stable in its current form of super dense degenerate material? I understand that a small chunk of neutron material would explode from neutron decay.

  17. Fantastic short video !! I really enjoy your channel, keep up the good work.

  18. Neat! Nice Video! 🙂

  19. Wait a minute… If white Dwarfs are the most stable stars and last for hundreds of billions of years, don't they have the highest potential to create and sustain life on a nearby planet? or would the earlier red giant stage of the star consume the planets that are in the future-white-dwarf's habitable zone?

  20. wonderful video. you do exceptionally well with this format.

  21. Did you say 10 billion years? That's a relief. At first I thought you said 10 million years….. Hi-Yuck 🙂

  22. Actually,there will still be red dwarfs and brown dwarfs heating the universe.And if you think it's a long wait before we'll see any black dwarfs,try waiting around to see when blue dwarfs finally light up the night skies.

  23. What if there are black dwarfs in the universe right now, but we just haven't seen any yet? We don't truly know the the age of the universe; it is probably older than we know.

  24. Sometime in the very distant future, there might be lifeforms that will scratch their heads, wondering where their dense, black, "planets" came from. They will be laughed at when they hypothesize "stars."

  25. Could a white dwarf support life as we know it?

  26. If the white dwarfs are composed of degenerate matter plasma, how will they cool? Will they maintain that density as they cool? Will it create some kind of… stable super dense crystal? Can you have a solid plasma, or will the black dwarf be made up some kind of atoms (and if so, which ones?)

  27. You should take a look at Space Engine. You could use it to make beautiful space footage. It includes the entire universe, with planets (and mountains/rivers/lakes) around just about every star in the universe (procedurally generated outside those that we know about). Just google it. Nothing to do with me though.

  28. At what temperature does it become 'black'?

  29. Great video Tony 🙂

  30. This was one of my favourite videos.

  31. 2:00 I'd really like to know for how long the expansion will take place, rather then when.
    Will it be seconds, minutes, hours, years or centuries ????
    When you said it takes billion of years for a stage to the other is that for giant to become something else?

  32. +Deep Astronomy, Tony Darnell, can you suggest a video explaining what some people are referring to as Nibiru? Is it real or just another end scene scenarios to fool people into watching a new future thriller movie, like when they made up 12/21/2012 ?

  33. omg best channel ever after 1 video

  34. Great Video! I always loved these type of videos 🙂 i wish they were longer ones…

  35. I love these videos so much! I learn something awesome every time I see a new one, and there is just something about your voice, It;s so calm and soothing yet at the same time you can hear the passion for what it is your talking about. I just really love these video's by far and away the best video's on You Tube by far in my opinion. Please keep up the amazing work and thank you so much for all you do!!

  36. Another great video Tony!!

  37. Thank you Tony, awsome video! I love you <3

  38. cool, er i mean awesome!

  39. Really interesting you haven't found one yet you know they are there and evidence in a creator also all around even as believed by Einstein yet we have not seen him either

  40. Super stuff Tony. Thanks

  41. Man I love these videos so much I could watch them forever. I wish you would do a half hour one of these at the end of every month as watching them is extremely therapeutic.

  42. When I'm hungover and can't get out of bed. I play videos like this so it can help me relax and sleep it off.

  43. your voice is amzing

  44. What happens to a red dwarf once fusion is over inside it? Does it also leave a white dwarf behind? Does the red dwarf cool down into a black dwarf directly? In this case, is it correct to call it a black dwarf, since its nature seems to be different than that of the black dwarf derived from white dwarfs shown in the video?

  45. Brilliant video! (no pun intended)

  46. no entiendo inglés: traducción!!!

  47. This narrator is about a half octave from being Owen Wilson. Great video

  48. Man, this is amazing. How is this shit out there??

  49. Fantastic. Thanks Tony.

  50. Oh man, I'm loving this channel.

  51. So, this is NOT taking Red Dwarves into account?!

  52. Look folks, something black in Astronomy that is less weird, but still MORE exotic than black holes.

  53. so all of our atoms will be part of the the dwarf star?

  54. Can we walk on Black dwarf ?

  55. How do you make these amazing images? I'm trying to make skyboxes for my game…

  56. If humans remain unchanged until the degenerate period, would there then be World Peace?

  57. Actually, the degenerate-era will begin as soon as Hillary Clinton takes the oath of office for POTUS. Great video! Excellent. ^..^~~

  58. The thing is, though we can't go back in time we can theoretically go forward in time via time dilation when approaching light speed velocities. Theoretically (as I understand it) one could travel to the decaying universe and bear witness to these black dwarf stars. Maybe when we have that technology some brave souls will volunteer for such a one-way mission, emerging every one thousand, ten thousand, ten million, ten billion years or so, leaving "bread crumbs" of information for whatever societies evolve or come after us. It would become part of our existential reality to know some part of us navigated the end of times.

  59. Not to self: Time to study some physics relevant to white dwarfs and stellar novas. Great video! Thank you!

  60. I thought red dwarfs are the dominate type of star in the universe. I think i remember that from your clip on that.

  61. Our sun might be second or third generation star, meanwhile our universe are just a "baby" right now, since it takes quintillion years until we met the second "dark ages" (first dark ages are just few million years after the Big Bang where first star wasn't born)

  62. This video seems like it is telling about both black and white dwarfs.

  63. The music and guy's voice is so calming 😀

  64. HOW DO WE KNOW THAT THE UNIVERSE IS TOO YOUNG FOR THOSE BLACK DWARF STARS… WW CANT SEE THE EDGE OF THE UNIVERSE SO HOW DO WE KNOW THAT THE UNIVERSE IS 17-18 BILLION YEARS OLD. PLUS BLACK DWARF STARS WOULDN'T SHINE SO WE WOULDN'T EVEN BE ABLE TO DETECT THEM… =_= AND IM ONLY 12…

  65. okay there's definitely black corpses from an older universe hanging around. maybe in the deep field. Maybe whipping around like rogue planets, emitting no radiation besides heat.

  66. A black sun sounds cool though

  67. Won't new stars form after that? Since energy is always conserved, won't that mean that even after a star completely parishes and is broken up into a cloud of heavy elements that these elements in return can form a new star?

  68. I appreciate your efforts to continue Carl Sagan-esque videomaking in the 2010s ! 🙂

  69. Nice sci fi voice

  70. Aren't dwarf stars just the core of the star with out the layers?

  71. this is so boring

  72. Knowing that white dwarf stars eventually cool to black dwarfs. What does a neutron star eventually become?

  73. wonderfully done.

  74. Why is the narrator whispering? I feel like we're in a quiet room whispering, planning the assassination of Donald Trump!!

  75. I love the great animation. it really helps illustrate the awesomeness!

  76. the perfect voice, i dont even need to watch the video i can just close my eyes and listen, i love your voice.

    instant sub

  77. Makes me want to cry. I'm so tiny, so insignificant, yet so big

  78. Stars are powered by Fusion fusion causes the Heat. And there could be black Dwarfs. There could be black dorphz. And there could be black Dwarfs because if You Follow the yellow brick road he may realize that he did the math wrong and they run out of energy a lot sooner and they go dark a lot sooner than you thought they did. So the first black dwarfs could have formed already. And in fact I've seen black Dwarfs if you are in a city with a large percentage of negroes living in it you're going to have dwarvez among that population.

  79. The degenerate era started in the 1960s and is really kicking off hard with the Democrat Party and places like calipornia and Jew York. And the Democratic People's Republic of Maryland (DPRM). This particular state is very much like the DPRK OTHERWISE KNOWN AS THE DEMOCRATIC PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF KOREA. Yes the degenerate era is mostly known by the plethora of different anti trumper's anti-gunners gay rights activists and other degenerate such as this. In other words to modern democratic party which is only different in the fact that they kicked the Klan out thinking that would make him look not racist even though the Democrat Party has blacks trapped in their programs and Promises them all the "GIBS ME DAT!" Keep blacks in the Inner City and voting for Democrats in one solid block.

  80. This video makes me think that we should be happy to see this stuff in space today before everything dies.

  81. why do they cool so slowly?

  82. Over time when a white dwarf cools off does it turn red?

  83. Hiding in the blackness of eternity…Eternity will allow entropy to reduce a black dwarf to zero..Until all matter is gone and the last photon expires… The universe remains unchanging…. Time ceases to exist…Brian Cox

  84. Of course by the time a black dwarf could even have come close to existing the universe will have ripped itself apart due to dark energy.

  85. Definitely like your videos

  86. I thought Red Dwarf stars far outnumber stars like our sun – by 5 to 1?

  87. Maybe the civilization will be able to prevent these inaccessible stars from forming by moving and merging enough stars to create a pair instability supernova. Describing a star as living a life and dying in expressive language isn't that precise. Maybe a planet such as earth is then a "corpse" too once it has solidified, perhaps until radio active decay is still happening, it is a zombie or similar.

  88. Do you think eventually, one would be able to stand on one? Well. Not stand but touch it? Eventually it will be cool enough right?

  89. would they be smooth like a marble?

  90. If a White Dwarf star is collapsed atoms, they must be held together densely by its gravity. So, what would be the distribution of ELEMENTS? What would be the largest atom? Obviously no Uranium.

  91. Want to compliment your narrative skills they are superb, way above and beyond the average channel and better than some professional channels here. If not doing it already, you should do this professionally!🙃🙂

  92. "Main Sequence stars can range from 1/10th the mass of the sun to about 8 times its mass"? Didn't get that part. Do you mean main sequence stars that would eventually become white dwarfs?

  93. If a black dwarf is just a cooled star does that mean once its fully cooled down you could technically land a spaceship on it and be able to walk on it like normal earth?

  94. you sound almost like William Shatner🤔

  95. Cool video, but why are you whispering? It sounds like there is someone sleeping in the same room that you are trying not to wake

  96. Most beautiful channel on astronomy.. don't know why they left updating it.

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